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Commercial Attraction - Our primary benchmark of the size and strength of a city’s economy and real estate market, based on an Index of Commercial Attraction (ICA). Covering 650 cities worldwide, the Index includes key real estate measures (namely investment volumes and commercial real estate stock), as well as socio-economic and business indicators such as economic output, population, air connectivity and corporate presence.

Population – Latest population of a city’s metropolitan region, millions.

Economic size – Latest estimate of the total annual output (GDP) of a city’s metropolitan area, US$ billion, PPP (Source: Oxford Economics, JLL).

Economic Growth – Forecast of average annual percentage GDP change to 2024 (Source: Oxford Economics).

GDP per Capita – Latest estimate of GDP per head of the population of a city’s metropolitan area, US$ PPP (Source: Oxford Economics, JLL).

Airport Passengers – Total number of air passengers passing through a city’s airports, millions (Source: ACI, JLL).

Office Stock – Volume in thousand square metres of the total office stock of the city (Source: JLL).

R.E. Investment Volumes – Value of direct commercial real estate investment over a three-year period, US$ millions (Source: JLL).